Dopaminergic imaging and clinical predictors for phenoconversion of REM sleep behaviour disorder.
Arnaldi D., Chincarini A., Hu MT., Sonka K., Boeve B., Miyamoto T., Puligheddu M., De Cock VC., Terzaghi M., Plazzi G., Tachibana N., Morbelli S., Rolinski M., Dusek P., Lowe V., Miyamoto M., Figorilli M., Verbizier DD., Bossert I., Antelmi E., Meli R., Barber TR., Trnka J., Miyagawa T., Serra A., Pizza F., Bauckneht M., Bradley KM., Zogala D., McGowan DR., Jordan L., Manni R., Nobili F.
This is an international multicentre study aimed at evaluating the combined value of dopaminergic neuroimaging and clinical features in predicting future phenoconversion of idiopathic REM sleep behaviour (iRBD) subjects to overt synucleinopathy. Nine centres sent 123I-FP-CIT-SPECT data of 344 iRBD patients and 256 controls for centralized analysis. 123I-FP-CIT-SPECT images were semiquantified using DaTQUANTTM, obtaining putamen and caudate specific to non-displaceable binding ratios (SBRs). The following clinical variables were also analysed: (i) Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, motor section score; (ii) Mini-Mental State Examination score; (iii) constipation; and (iv) hyposmia. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to estimate conversion risk. Hazard ratios for each variable were calculated with Cox regression. A generalized logistic regression model was applied to identify the best combination of risk factors. Bayesian classifier was used to identify the baseline features predicting phenoconversion to parkinsonism or dementia. After quality check of the data, 263 iRBD patients (67.6 ± 7.3 years, 229 males) and 243 control subjects (67.2 ± 10.1 years, 110 males) were analysed. Fifty-two (20%) patients developed a synucleinopathy after average follow-up of 2 years. The best combination of risk factors was putamen dopaminergic dysfunction of the most affected hemisphere on imaging, defined as the lower value between either putamina (P