Increasing Blood Pressure Variability Predicts Poor Functional Outcome Following Acute Stroke.
Appiah KO., Nath M., Manning L., Davison WJ., Mazzucco S., Li L., John FP., Rothwell PM., Panerai RB., Haunton VJ., Robinson TG.
INTRODUCTION: Increasing blood pressure variability has been reported following acute stroke, but there is uncertainty about how best to measure it and about the impact on prognosis following acute ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack. METHODS: Enhanced casual blood pressure and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were completed at baseline (≤48 h post symptom onset). Blood pressure variability was defined by standard deviation and coefficient of variation of systolic, diastolic, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure. Modified Rankin scale score ≥3 described poor functional outcome assessed at 1- and 12-months post-stroke. Multivariable logistic regression models incorporating blood pressure variability measurement and other factors were performed, and odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals reported. RESULTS: 232 patients were recruited; 45 were dependent at 1-month, and 37 at 12-months. Dependent patients were more likely to be older, with a higher burden of pre-morbid conditions, and with increased blood pressure variability. Enhanced casual standard deviations of diastolic blood pressure [1.19 (1.02 to 1.39)] and mean arterial pressure [1.20 (1.00 to 1.43)] predicted dependency at 1-month. Predictors of 12-month dependency included: enhanced casual standard deviation of mean arterial pressure [1.21 (1.0-1.46)]; 24 h ambulatory monitor standard deviations of diastolic blood pressure [2.30 (1.08-4.90)] and mean arterial pressure [1.72 (1.09-2.72)], and the coefficient of variation of mean arterial pressure [1.76 (1.05-2.94)]; day-time ambulatory monitor coefficient of variation of systolic blood pressure [1.44 (1.02-2.03)] and mean arterial pressure [1.46 (1.02-2.08)]; and night-time ambulatory standard deviation of diastolic blood pressure [1.65 (1.03 -2.63)], and the coefficient of variation of mean arterial pressure and [1.38 (1.00- 1.90)] and pulse pressure [1.29 (1.00-1.65)]. CONCLUSION: Increasing blood pressure variability is independently and modestly associated with poor functional outcome at 1- and 12-months following acute stroke.