The novel diazoxide analog 3-isopropylamino-7-methoxy-4H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide is a selective Kir6.2/SUR1 channel opener.
Dabrowski M., Ashcroft FM., Ashfield R., Lebrun P., Pirotte B., Egebjerg J., Bondo Hansen J., Wahl P.
ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels are activated by a diverse group of compounds known as potassium channel openers (PCOs). Here, we report functional studies of the Kir6.2/SUR1 Selective PCO 3-isopropylamino-7-methoxy-4H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide (NNC 55-9216). We recorded cloned K(ATP) channel currents from inside-out patches excised from Xenopus laevis oocytes heterologously expressing Kir6.2/SUR1, Kir6.2/SUR2A, or Kir6.2/SUR2B, corresponding to the beta-cell, cardiac, and smooth muscle types of the K(ATP) channel. NNC 55-9216 reversibly activated Kir6.2/SUR1 currents (EC(50) = 16 micromol/l). This activation was dependent on intracellular MgATP and was abolished by mutation of a single residue in the Walker A motifs of either nucleotide-binding domain of SUR1. The drug had no effect on Kir6.2/SUR2A or Kir6.2/SUR2B currents. We therefore used chimeras of SUR1 and SUR2A to identify regions of SUR1 involved in the response to NNC 55-9216. Activation was completely abolished and significantly reduced by swapping transmembrane domains 8-11. The reverse chimera consisting of SUR2A with transmembrane domains 8-11 and NBD2 consisting SUR1 was activated by NNC 55-9216, indicating that these SUR1 regions are important for drug activation. [(3)H]glibenclamide binding to membranes from HEK293 cells transfected with SUR1 was displaced by NNC 55-9216 (IC(50) = 105 micromol/l), and this effect was impaired when NBD2 of SUR1 was replaced by that of SUR2A. These results suggest NNC 55-9216 is a SUR1-selective PCO that requires structural determinants, which differ from those needed for activation of the K(ATP) channel by pinacidil and cromakalim. The high selectivity of NNC 55-9216 may prove to be useful for studies of the molecular mechanism of PCO action.