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The induction of peripheral tolerance to alloantigen is accompanied in many cases by a decrease in the production of cytokines such as IL-2 and IFN gamma, yet a sustained production of cytokines such as IL-10 and IL-4. Whether or not this altered pattern of cytokine production in tolerant animals is causally related to the induction and/or maintenance of the tolerant state has yet to be fully determined, although experiments blocking selectively the action of IL-2 with CD25 antibodies suggest that manipulation of cytokine production may at least be a route to tolerance. Alternative methods for directly influencing the cytokine balance are sought and recent experiments on the CD28/CTLA-4-B7 interaction suggest a possible approach.


Journal article


Immunol Rev

Publication Date





5 - 18


Animals, Cytokines, Humans, Immune Tolerance, Immunity, Isoantigens, Transplantation Immunology