Detergent-free solubilisation & purification of a G protein coupled receptor using a polymethacrylate polymer.
Lavington S., Watts A.
G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) function as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) at heterotrimeric G proteins, and conduct this role embedded in a lipid bilayer. Detergents are widely used to solubilise GPCRs for structural and biophysical analysis, but are poor mimics of the lipid bilayer and may be deleterious to protein function. Amphipathic polymers have emerged as promising alternatives to detergents, which maintain a lipid environment around a membrane protein during purification. Of these polymers, the polymethacrylate (PMA) polymers have potential advantages over the most popular styrene maleic acid (SMA) polymer, but to date have not been applied to purification of membrane proteins. Here we use a class A GPCR, neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1), to explore detergent-free purification using PMA. By using an NTSR1-eGFP fusion protein expressed in Sf9 cells, a range of solubilisation conditions were screened, demonstrating the importance of solubilisation temperature, pH, NaCl concentration and the relative amounts of polymer and membrane sample. PMA-solubilised NTSR1 displayed compatibility with standard purification protocols and millimolar divalent cation concentrations. Moreover, the receptor in PMA discs showed stimulation of both Gq and Gi1 heterotrimers to an extent that was greater than that for the detergent-solubilised receptor. PMA therefore represents a viable alternative to SMA for membrane protein purification and has a potentially broad utility in studying GPCRs and other membrane proteins.