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Two-pore channels (TPCs) are cation-permeable channels located on endolysosomal membranes and important mediators of intracellular Ca2+ signalling. TPCs are involved in various pathophysiological processes, including cell growth and development, metabolism, and cancer progression. Most studies of TPCs have used TPC-/- cell or whole-animal models, or Ned-19, an indirect inhibitor. The TPC activation mechanism remains controversial, which has made it difficult to develop selective modulators. Recent studies of TPC structure and their interactomes are aiding the development of direct pharmacological modulators. This process is still in its infancy, but will facilitate future research and TPC targeting for therapeutical purposes. Here, we review the progress of current research into TPCs, including recent insights into their structures, functional roles, mechanisms of activation, and pharmacological modulators.

Original publication




Journal article


Trends Pharmacol Sci

Publication Date





582 - 594


NAADP, calcium, cell signalling, endolysosomes, interactome, two-pore channels, Animals, Calcium, Calcium Channels, Endosomes, Lysosomes, NADP