Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Changes of cycloplegic retinoscopy refraction from 8.5 to 38.5 months of age were compared in two infant groups in the Cambridge population: "infant myopes", having at least one myopic axis (0 to -3.5 D inclusive), and a second, "control" group with low hyperopia (< or = +3.5 D). Cycloplegia eliminated the variable accommodation of infants. The myopic group showed a significant emmetropization of the mean spherical equivalent towards low hyperopia by 3 yr. There was no significant change in the control group's mean spherical equivalent power. Both groups showed a significant reduction in astigmatism with age. Analysis of the vertical and horizontal powers showed significant "emmetropization" of these meridians, in both groups, towards low hyperopia from 8.5 to 38.5 months. These meridional emmetropization changes were significant for both With-the-Rule and Against-the-Rule astigmatism.


Journal article


Vision Res

Publication Date





1313 - 1324


Aging, Astigmatism, Child, Preschool, Cyclopentolate, Humans, Infant, Longitudinal Studies, Myopia, Ophthalmoscopy, Refraction, Ocular