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Sister chromatid cohesion essential for mitotic chromosome segregation is thought to involve the co-entrapment of sister DNAs within cohesin rings. Although cohesin can load onto chromosomes throughout the cell cycle, it only builds cohesion during S phase. A key question is whether cohesion is generated by conversion of cohesin complexes associated with un-replicated DNAs ahead of replication forks into cohesive structures behind them, or from nucleoplasmic cohesin that is loaded de novo onto nascent DNAs associated with forks, a process that would be dependent on cohesin's Scc2 subunit. We show here that in S. cerevisiae, both mechanisms exist and that each requires a different set of replisome-associated proteins. Cohesion produced by cohesin conversion requires Tof1/Csm3, Ctf4 and Chl1 but not Scc2 while that created by Scc2-dependent de novo loading at replication forks requires the Ctf18-RFC complex. The association of specific replisome proteins with different types of cohesion establishment opens the way to a mechanistic understanding of an aspect of DNA replication unique to eukaryotic cells.

Original publication

DOI

10.7554/eLife.56611

Type

Journal article

Journal

Elife

Publication Date

09/06/2020

Volume

9

Keywords

S. cerevisiae, SMC, biochemistry, chemical biology, chromosomes, cohesin, gene expression, replication, replisome, shister chromatid cohesion