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BACKGROUND/AIMS: To describe and summarise the outcomes reported in randomised controlled trials of multifocal versus monofocal intraocular lenses in cataract surgery. METHODS: We identified all randomised controlled trials of multifocal versus monofocal lenses in a Cochrane review (last search date June 2016). We extracted and summarised data on all outcomes reported using the framework of domain, measurement, metric and method of aggregation. RESULTS: All studies collected data on distance and near visual acuity but there was considerable variation in the measures used and whether these outcomes were unaided or best corrected. Most studies reported final value measurements, rather than change from baseline. Approximately half of the studies reported data as a continuous measure only, one-third reported both continuous and categorical measures and a minority reported categorical measures only. There was little consensus as to cut-points. Although a majority of studies included one or more patient-reported outcome measures, none of the studies reported patient involvement in the choice of outcomes. CONCLUSION: The collection and analysis of data on outcome measures in studies of multifocal intraocular lenses in cataract surgery are complicated. As a result, there is considerable heterogeneity in collection and reporting in the medical literature. This makes it difficult to synthesise such data to provide robust estimates of effect and is a potential source of research waste. Investigators in this field must produce a core outcome set that is informed by patients' views and we propose an initial set of outcomes on which these could be based.

Original publication




Journal article


Br J Ophthalmol

Publication Date





1345 - 1349


treatment surgery, Cataract, Cataract Extraction, Contrast Sensitivity, Female, Humans, Lens Implantation, Intraocular, Lenses, Intraocular, Male, Multifocal Intraocular Lenses, Outcome Assessment, Health Care, Patient Reported Outcome Measures, Patient Satisfaction, Pseudophakia, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Surveys and Questionnaires, Visual Acuity