Acute pH-dependent regulation of AE2-mediated anion exchange involves discrete local surfaces of the NH2-terminal cytoplasmic domain.
Stewart AK., Kerr N., Chernova MN., Alper SL., Vaughan-Jones RD.
We have previously defined in the NH2-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the mouse AE2/SLC4A2 anion exchanger a critical role for the highly conserved amino acids (aa) 336-347 in determining wild-type pH sensitivity of anion transport. We have now engineered hexa-Ala ((A)6) and individual amino acid substitutions to investigate the importance to pH-dependent regulation of AE2 activity of the larger surrounding region of aa 312-578. 4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS)-sensitive 36Cl- efflux from AE2-expressing Xenopus oocytes was monitored during changes in pHi or pHo in HEPES-buffered and in 5% CO2/HCO3- -buffered conditions. Wild-type AE2-mediated 36Cl- efflux was profoundly inhibited at low pHo, with a pHo(50) value = 6.75 +/- 0.05 and was stimulated up to 10-fold by intracellular alkalinization. Individual mutation of several amino acid residues at non-contiguous sites preceding or following the conserved sequence aa 336-347 attenuated pHi and/or pHo sensitivity of 36Cl- efflux. The largest attenuation of pH sensitivity occurred with the AE2 mutant (A)6357-362. This effect was phenocopied by AE2 H360E, suggesting a crucial role for His360. Homology modeling of the three-dimensional structure of the AE2 NH2-terminal cytoplasmic domain (based on the structure of the corresponding region of human AE1) predicts that those residues shown by mutagenesis to be functionally important define at least one localized surface region necessary for regulation of AE2 activity by pH.