Calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum of higher plants elicited by the NADP metabolite nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate.
Navazio L., Bewell MA., Siddiqua A., Dickinson GD., Galione A., Sanders D.
Higher plants share with animals a responsiveness to the Ca(2+) mobilizing agents inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) and cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR). In this study, by using a vesicular (45)Ca(2+) flux assay, we demonstrate that microsomal vesicles from red beet and cauliflower also respond to nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), a Ca(2+)-releasing molecule recently described in marine invertebrates. NAADP potently mobilizes Ca(2+) with a K(1/2) = 96 nM from microsomes of nonvacuolar origin in red beet. Analysis of sucrose gradient-separated cauliflower microsomes revealed that the NAADP-sensitive Ca(2+) pool was derived from the endoplasmic reticulum. This exclusively nonvacuolar location of the NAADP-sensitive Ca(2+) pathway distinguishes it from the InsP(3)- and cADPR-gated pathways. Desensitization experiments revealed that homogenates derived from cauliflower tissue contained low levels of NAADP (125 pmol/mg) and were competent in NAADP synthesis when provided with the substrates NADP and nicotinic acid. NAADP-induced Ca(2+) release is insensitive to heparin and 8-NH(2)-cADPR, specific inhibitors of the InsP(3)- and cADPR-controlled mechanisms, respectively. However, NAADP-induced Ca(2+) release could be blocked by pretreatment with a subthreshold dose of NAADP, as previously observed in sea urchin eggs. Furthermore, the NAADP-gated Ca(2+) release pathway is independent of cytosolic free Ca(2+) and therefore incapable of operating Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release. In contrast to the sea urchin system, the NAADP-gated Ca(2+) release pathway in plants is not blocked by L-type channel antagonists. The existence of multiple Ca(2+) mobilization pathways and Ca(2+) release sites might contribute to the generation of stimulus-specific Ca(2+) signals in plant cells.