Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Multiple gene therapy trials are occurring for a variety of ophthalmic diseases around the world. The safety of gene therapy in the eye has been established, and the next step is to reliably assess efficacy. This is primarily done through the use of imaging techniques and visual function measures. Standardized visual function assessments, however, were originally developed for a clinical setting and may not be suitable for detecting and quantifying therapeutic changes. This scoping review takes a comprehensive look at current practice in terms of the outcome measures defined at trial registration. These were compared to the outcome measures reported in the literature. All published trials reported the pre-registered primary outcome measure. A range of additional secondary outcomes were reported that were not originally planned. Gaps in gene therapy assessment exist and further discussion are required to find a way forward, particularly as more conditions progress to phase 2 and 3 trials. Several factors impacting on trial design and outcome measure choice are discussed.

Original publication




Journal article


Front Pharmacol

Publication Date





clinical trial, gene therapy, genetic eye disease, outcome measure, retinal imaging, vision, visual function