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PURPOSE: To describe the characteristics and potential differences between focal and diffuse phenotypes of untreated chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (cCSC). METHODS: For this study, patients were divided in two groups. Focal leakage was defined as 1 "hot spot" of leakage, whereas diffuse leakage was defined as either > 1 hot spot or a larger area of widespread leakage on FA. Clinical characteristics were assessed at presentation. After Bonferroni correction, P values < 0.00125 were deemed statistically significant. RESULTS: The focal leakage group included 68 eyes (53 males), and the diffuse leakage group included 105 eyes (88 males). Mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 77.1 ± 8.1 Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letters in the focal group and 76.0 ± 9.6 ETDRS letters in the diffuse group (p = 0.440). In the focal group, mean age was 46.9 ± 8.8 years, whereas this was 49.7 ± 8.3 years in the diffuse group (p = 0.033). Mean central foveal thickness was 107.1 ± 21.3 μm in the focal group and 106.2 ± 27.3 μm in the diffuse group (p = 0.818). Mean choroidal thickness was 407.5 ± 114.8 μm in the focal group and 419.1 ± 113.9 μm in the diffuse group (p = 0.578). In the focal group, subretinal fluid was present in the fellow eye in 16% of the patients, as compared to 29% in the diffuse group (p = 0.067). CONCLUSIONS: In untreated cCSC patients with focal or diffuse leakage on FA, no marked differences in clinical characteristics were found. Extensive choroidal abnormalities may be present in both groups, which are presumed to lie at the basis of the development of cCSC.

Original publication




Journal article


Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol

Publication Date





1419 - 1425


Central serous chorioretinopathy, Diffuse leakage, Fluorescein angiography, Focal leakage, Indocyanine green angiography, Central Serous Chorioretinopathy, Choroid, Chronic Disease, Female, Fluorescein Angiography, Follow-Up Studies, Fundus Oculi, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Retina, Retrospective Studies, Subretinal Fluid, Tomography, Optical Coherence, Visual Acuity