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Forkhead (Fkh) transcription factors influence cell death, proliferation, and differentiation and the cell cycle. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Fkh2 both activates and represses transcription of CLB2, encoding a B-type cyclin. CLB2 is expressed during G(2)/M phase and repressed during G(1). Fkh2 recruits the coactivator Ndd1, an interaction which is promoted by Clb2/Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation of Ndd1, suggesting that CLB2 is autoregulated. Ndd1 is proposed to function by antagonizing Fkh2-mediated repression, but nothing is known about the mechanism. Here we ask how Fkh2 represses CLB2. We show that Fkh2 controls a repressive chromatin structure that initiates in the early coding region of CLB2 and spreads up the promoter during the M and G(1) phases. The Isw2 chromatin-remodeling ATPase cooperates with Fkh2 to remodel the chromatin and repress CLB2 expression throughout the cell cycle. In addition, the related factors Isw1 and Fkh1 configure the chromatin at the early coding region and negatively regulate CLB2 expression but only during G(2)/M phase. Thus, the cooperative actions of two forkhead transcription factors and two chromatin-remodeling ATPases combine to regulate CLB2. We propose that chromatin-mediated repression by Isw1 and Isw2 may serve to limit activation of CLB2 expression by the Clb2/Cdk1 kinase during G(2)/M and to fully repress expression during G(1).

Original publication




Journal article


Mol Cell Biol

Publication Date





2848 - 2860


Adenosine Triphosphatases, Cell Cycle, Cell Cycle Proteins, Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly, Cyclin B, Forkhead Transcription Factors, Gene Deletion, Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal, Genes, Lethal, Nucleosomes, Promoter Regions, Genetic, Protein Binding, Repressor Proteins, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins, Suppression, Genetic, Transcription Factors, Transcription, Genetic