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OBJECTIVE: Recording of local field potentials (LFPs) during deep brain stimulation (DBS) is necessary to investigate the instantaneous brain response to stimulation, minimize time delays for closed-loop neurostimulation and maximise the available neural data. To our knowledge, existing recording systems lack the ability to provide artefact-free high-frequency (> 100 Hz) LFP recordings during DBS in real time primarily because of the contamination of the neural signals of interest by the stimulation artefacts. APPROACH: To solve this problem, we designed and developed a novel, low-noise and versatile analog front-end (AFE) that uses a high-order (8th) analog Chebyshev notch filter to suppress the artefacts originating from the stimulation frequency. After defining the system requirements for concurrent LFP recording and DBS artefact suppression, we assessed the performance of the realised AFE by conducting both in vitro and in vivo experiments using unipolar and bipolar DBS (monophasic pulses, amplitude ranging from 3 to 6 V peak-to-peak, frequency 140 Hz and pulse width 100 μs). A full performance comparison between the proposed AFE and an identical AFE, equipped with an 8th order analog Bessel notch filter, was also conducted. MAIN RESULTS: A high-performance, 4 nV/√ AFE that is capable of recording nV-scale signals was designed in accordance with the imposed specifications. Under both in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions, the proposed AFE provided real-time, low-noise and artefact-free LFP recordings (in the frequency range 0.5 - 250 Hz) during stimulation. Its sensing and stimulation artefact suppression capabilities outperformed the capabilities of the AFE equipped with the Bessel notch filter. SIGNIFICANCE: The designed AFE can precisely record LFP signals, in and without the presence of either unipolar or bipolar DBS, which renders it as a functional and practical AFE architecture to be utilised in a wide range of applications and environments. This work paves the way for the development of externalized research tools for closed-loop neuromodulation that use low- and higher-frequency LFPs as control signals.

Original publication




Journal article


J Neural Eng

Publication Date



DBS, High-performance analog front-end, LFP (/ExG) bioinstrumentation, analog filtering, artefact suppression