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The fourth transmembrane helix (S4) is the primary voltage-sensor of voltage-gated ion channels. Recent studies have used fluorescence resonance energy transfer as a spectroscopic ruler to determine the nature and magnitude of the voltage-induced movement of S4 that leads to channel opening.


Journal article


Curr Biol

Publication Date





R206 - R209


Energy Transfer, Fluorescence, Ion Channel Gating, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Models, Biological, Models, Molecular, Potassium Channels, Protein Conformation