CRB1 mutation spectrum in inherited retinal dystrophies.
den Hollander AI., Davis J., van der Velde-Visser SD., Zonneveld MN., Pierrottet CO., Koenekoop RK., Kellner U., van den Born LI., Heckenlively JR., Hoyng CB., Handford PA., Roepman R., Cremers FP.
Mutations in the Crumbs homologue 1 (CRB1) gene have been reported in patients with a variety of autosomal recessive retinal dystrophies, including retinitis pigmentosa (RP) with preserved paraarteriolar retinal pigment epithelium (PPRPE), RP with Coats-like exudative vasculopathy, early onset RP without PPRPE, and Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). We extended our investigations of CRB1 in these retinal dystrophies, and identified nine novel CRB1 sequence variants. In addition, we screened patients with "classic" RP and classic Coats disease (without RP), but no pathologic sequence variants were found in the CRB1 gene. In total, 71 different sequence variants have been identified on 184 CRB1 alleles of patients with retinal dystrophies, including amino acid substitutions, frameshift, nonsense, and splice site mutations, in-frame deletions, and large insertions. Recent studies in two animal models, mouse and Drosophila, and in vivo high-resolution microscopy in patients with LCA, have shed light on the role of CRB1 in the pathogenesis of retinal dystrophies and its function in the photoreceptors. In this article, we provide an overview of the currently known CRB1 sequence variants, predict their effect, and propose a genotype-phenotype correlation model for CRB1 mutations.