Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

ATM and ATR are two related kinases essential for signalling DNA damage. Although ATM is thought to be the principle kinase responsible for signalling ionising radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage, ATR also contributes to signalling this form of genotoxic stress. However, the molecular basis of differential ATM and ATR activation in response to IR remains unclear. Here, we report that ATR is recruited to sites of IR-induced DNA damage significantly later than activation of ATM. We show that ATR is recruited to IR-induced nuclear foci in G(1) and S phase of the cell cycle, supporting a role for ATR in detecting DNA damage outside of S phase. In addition, we report that recruitment of ATR to sites of IR-induced DNA damage is concomitant with appearance of large tracts of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and that this event is dependent on ATM and components of the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) protein complex.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





3894 - 3904


3T3 Cells, Animals, Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins, Base Sequence, Cell Cycle Proteins, DNA Damage, DNA Repair Enzymes, DNA, Single-Stranded, DNA-Binding Proteins, HeLa Cells, Humans, MRE11 Homologue Protein, Mice, Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases, RNA, Small Interfering, Radiation, Ionizing, S Phase, Tumor Suppressor Proteins