A Decade of Blood Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease Research: An Evolving Field, Improving Study Designs, and the Challenge of Replication.
Shi L., Baird AL., Westwood S., Hye A., Dobson R., Thambisetty M., Lovestone S.
Blood-based biomarkers represent a less invasive and potentially cheaper approach for aiding Alzheimer's disease (AD) detection compared with cerebrospinal fluid and some neuroimaging biomarkers. Acknowledging that many in the field have made great progress, here we review some of the work that our group has pursued to identify and validate blood-based proteomic biomarkers through both case control and AD pathology endophenotype-based approaches. Our focus is primarily to identify a minimally invasive and hopefully cost-effective blood-based biomarker to reduce screen failure in clinical trials where participants have prodromal or even pre-clinical disease. We summarize some of the key findings and approaches taken in these biomarker studies, while addressing the main challenges, including that of limited replication in the field, and discuss opportunities for biomarker development.