The Effect of Dosing Regimens on the Antimalarial Efficacy of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine: A Pooled Analysis of Individual Patient Data
Achan J., Adam I., Arinaitwe E., Ashley EA., Awab GR., Ba MS., Barnes KI., Bassat Q., Borrmann S., Bousema T., Dahal P., D'Alessandro U., Davis TME., Dondorp AM., Dorsey G., Drakeley CJ., Fanello CI., Faye B., Flegg JA., Gaye O., Gething PW., González R., Guerin PJ., Hay SI., Hien TT., Janssens B., Kamya MR., Karema C., Karunajeewa HA., Koné M., Lell B., Marsh K., Mayxay M., Menéndez C., Mens PF., Meremikwu M., Moreira C., Mueller I., Nabasumba C., Nambozi M., Ndiaye JL., Newton PN., Nguyen TN., Nosten F., Nsanzabana C., Omar SA., Ouédraogo JB., Penali LK., Pene M., Phyo AP., Piola P., Price RN., Sasithon P., Rosenthal PJ., Same-Ekobo A., Sawa P., Schallig HDFH., Shekalaghe SA., Sibley CH., Smith J., Smithuis F., Somé AF., Stepniewska K., Talisuna AO., Tarning J., Tjitra E., Tine RCK.
Background:Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) is increasingly recommended for antimalarial treatment in many endemic countries; however, concerns have been raised over its potential under dosing in young children. We investigated the influence of different dosing schedules on DP's clinical efficacy.Methods and Findings:A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify all studies published between 1960 and February 2013, in which patients were enrolled and treated with DP. Principal investigators were approached and invited to share individual patient data with the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN). Data were pooled using a standardised methodology. Univariable and multivariable risk factors for parasite recrudescence were identified using a Cox's regression model with shared frailty across the study sites. Twenty-four published and two unpublished studies (n = 7,072 patients) were included in the analysis. After correcting for reinfection by parasite genotyping, Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were 97.7% (95% CI 97.3%-98.1%) at day 42 and 97.2% (95% CI 96.7%-97.7%) at day 63. Overall 28.6% (979/3,429) of children aged 1 to 5 years received a total dose of piperaquine below 48 mg/kg (the lower limit recommended by WHO); this risk was 2.3-2.9-fold greater compared to that in the other age groups and was associated with reduced efficacy at day 63 (94.4% [95% CI 92.6%-96.2%], p < 0.001). After adjusting for confounding factors, the mg/kg dose of piperaquine was found to be a significant predictor for recrudescence, the risk increasing by 13% (95% CI 5.0%-21%) for every 5 mg/kg decrease in dose; p = 0.002. In a multivariable model increasing the target minimum total dose of piperaquine in children aged 1 to 5 years old from 48 mg/kg to 59 mg/kg would halve the risk of treatment failure and cure at least 95% of patients; such an increment was not associated with gastrointestinal toxicity in the ten studies in which this could be assessed.Conclusions:DP demonstrates excellent efficacy in a wide range of transmission settings; however, treatment failure is associated with a lower dose of piperaquine, particularly in young children, suggesting potential for further dose optimisation.Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. © 2013 Price et al.