Campath-1M--prophylactic use after kidney transplantation. A randomized controlled clinical trial.
Friend PJ., Hale G., Waldmann H., Gore S., Thiru S., Joysey V., Evans DB., Calne RY.
Campath-1M is a rat monoclonal IgM antibody that binds human complement and recognizes virtually all peripheral human mononuclear cells. It is known to be effective in T cell depletion of bone marrow grafts, and encouraging results were obtained in a pilot study in which the antibody was used in prevention and treatment of rejection of kidney, pancreas, and liver allografts. In this randomized controlled clinical trial, Campath-1M has been evaluated as a prophylactic agent following renal allografting. It is shown that patients who received a 10-day course of the antibody immediately postoperatively, in addition to standard therapy with high-dose cyclosporine (17 mg/kg), experienced a significantly lower incidence of early acute cellular rejection than control patients who received cyclosporine alone. There was no evidence of "rebound" rejection following the end of antibody treatment to suggest that rejection had merely been delayed. However, patients who received this additional immunosuppression experienced a significantly higher incidence of serious infections than controls, this negating any benefit from the treatment in terms of graft survival. Thus, a monoclonal antibody of broad specificity directed against lymphocytes may be effective as a prophylactic agent after organ transplantation but its use should be accompanied by a reduction in other immunosuppressive drugs.