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This review highlights established and more recently recognized risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) relevant for patients seen in primary care, emphasizing the key role of diabetes mellitus type 2. Recent trends in risk factor research as well as current methods of risk stratification, and new systemic markers are discussed. Beyond the need for more forceful public health strategies to improve early recognition and intervention, the necessity of an integrated comprehensive investigation of the overall characteristics of cardiovascular disease, especially in primary care patients as a prerequisite for future concerted actions is pointed out. Based on this, a large-scale epidemiological investigation focusing on CHD and diabetes in the primary care sector is suggested.

Original publication




Journal article


Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes

Publication Date





157 - 170


Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Germany, Humans, National Health Programs, Primary Health Care, Risk Assessment