Visualization of replication factories attached to nucleoskeleton.
Hozák P., Hassan AB., Jackson DA., Cook PR.
HeLa cells in early S phase were encapsulated in agarose microbeads, permeabilized, and incubated with biotin-11-dUTP in a "physiological" buffer. Sites of DNA synthesis were then immunolabeled. As others have found, approximately 150 focal sites of synthesis were visible in each nucleus by light microscopy; they also contained DNA polymerase alpha and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Electron microscopy of thick resinless sections from which approximately 90% of the chromatin had been removed revealed a similar number of dense, morphologically discrete ovoid bodies strung along a nucleoskeleton. The ovoids remained morphologically and functionally intact despite the removal of most of the chromatin. After 2.5 min of incubation with biotin-11-dUTP, the incorporated analog was associated only with ovoids; after 5 min it began to spread into the adjacent chromatin, which became extensively labeled after 1 hr. This provides visual evidence for polymerization "factories" fixed to a skeleton, with replication occurring as the template moves through them.