Concurrent stimulation and sensing in bi-directional brain interfaces: a multi-site translational experience.
Ansó J., Benjaber M., Parks B., Parker S., Oehrn CR., Petrucci M., Gilron R., Little S., Wilt R., Bronte-Stewart H., Gunduz A., Borton D., Starr PA., Denison TJ.
OBJECTIVE: To provide a design analysis and guidance framework for the implementation of concurrent stimulation and sensing during adaptive deep brain stimulation (aDBS) with particular emphasis on artifact mitigations. APPROACH: We defined a general architecture of feedback-enabled devices, identified key components in the signal chain which might result in unwanted artifacts and proposed methods that might ultimately enable improved aDBS therapies. We gathered data from research subjects chronically-implanted with an investigational aDBS system, Summit RC+S, to characterize and explore artifact mitigations arising from concurrent stimulation and sensing. We then used a prototype investigational implantable device, DyNeuMo, and a bench-setup that accounts for tissue-electrode properties, to confirm our observations and verify mitigations. The strategies to reduce transient stimulation artifacts and improve performance during aDBS were confirmed in a chronic implant using updated configuration settings. MAIN RESULTS: We derived and validated a "checklist" of configuration settings to improve system performance and areas for future device improvement. Key considerations for the configuration include 1) active instead of passive recharge, 2) sense-channel blanking in the amplifier, 3) high-pass filter settings, 4) tissue-electrode impedance mismatch management, 5) time-frequency trade-offs in the classifier, 6) algorithm blanking and transition rate limits. Without proper channel configuration, the aDBS algorithm was susceptible to limit-cycles of oscillating stimulation independent of physiological state. By applying the checklist, we could optimize each block's performance characteristics within the overall system. With system-level optimization, a 'fast' aDBS prototype algorithm was demonstrated to be feasible without reentrant loops, and with noise performance suitable for subcortical brain circuits. SIGNIFICANCE: We present a framework to study sources and propose mitigations of artifacts in devices that provide chronic aDBS. This work highlights the trade-offs in performance as novel sensing devices translate to the clinic. Finding the appropriate balance of constraints is imperative for successful translation of aDBS therapies.