Artefact-free recording of local field potentials with simultaneous stimulation for closed-loop Deep-Brain Stimulation.
Debarros J., Gaignon L., He S., Pogosyan A., Benjaber M., Denison T., Brown P., Tan H.
Continuous high frequency Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a standard therapy for several neurological disorders. Closed-loop DBS is expected to further improve treatment by providing adaptive, on-demand therapy. Local field potentials (LFPs) recorded from the stimulation electrodes are the most often used feedback signal in closed-loop DBS. However, closed-loop DBS based on LFPs requires simultaneous recording and stimulating, which remains a challenge due to persistent stimulation artefacts that distort underlying LFP biomarkers. Here we first investigate the nature of the stimulation-induced artefacts and review several techniques that have been proposed to deal with them. Then we propose a new method to synchronize the sampling clock with the stimulation pulse so that the stimulation artefacts are never sampled, while at the same time the Nyquist-Shannon theorem is satisfied for uninterrupted LFP recording. Test results show that this method achieves true uninterrupted artefact-free LFP recording over a wide frequency band and for a wide range of stimulation frequencies.Clinical relevance-The method proposed here provides continuous and artefact-free recording of LFPs close to the stimulation target, and thereby facilitates the implementation of more advanced closed-loop DBS using LFPs as feedback.