State-dependent protein-lipid interactions of a pentameric ligand-gated ion channel in a neuronal membrane
Dämgen M., Biggin P.
Abstract Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) are receptor proteins that are sensitive to their membrane environment, but the mechanism for how lipids modulate function under physiological conditions in a state dependent manner is not known. The glycine receptor is a pLGIC whose structure has been resolved in different functional states. Using a realistic model of a neuronal membrane coupled with coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that the lipid-protein interactions are dependent on the receptor state, suggesting that lipids may regulate the receptor’s conformational dynamics. Comparison with existing structural data confirms known lipid binding sites, but we also predict further protein-lipid interactions including a site at the communication interface between the extracellular and transmembrane domain. Moreover, in the active state, cholesterol can bind to the binding site of the positive allosteric modulator ivermectin. These protein-lipid interaction sites could in future be exploited for the rational design of lipid-like allosteric drugs. Author Summary Ion channels are proteins that control the flow of ions into the cell. The family of ion channels known as the pentameric ligand gated ion channels (pLGICS) open in response to the binding of a neurotransmitter, moving the channel from a resting state to an open state. The glycine receptor is a pLGIC whose structure has been resolved in different functional states. It is also known that the response of pLGICs can also be modified by different types of lipid found within the membrane itself but exactly how is unclear. Here, we used a realistic model of a neuronal membrane and performed molecular dynamics simulations to show various lipid-protein interactions that are dependent on the channel state. Our work also reveals previously unconsidered protein-lipid interactions at a key junction of the channel known to be critical for the transmission of the opening process. We also demonstrate that cholesterol interacts with the protein at a site already known to bind to another compound that modulates the channel, called ivermectin. The work should be useful for future drug design.