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Cognitive defi cits are prevalent at the acute stage of stroke (Jaillard, Naegele, TrabuccoMiguel, LeBas, & Hommel, 2009). They interfere with the potential benefi ts of rehabilitation and affect recovery (Ballard et al., 2003; Barker-Collo & Feigin, 2006; de Haan, Nys, & van Zandvoort, 2006; Donovan et al., 2008; Edwards et al., 2006; Fure, Bruun Wyller, Engedal, & Thommessen, 2006; Narasimhalu et al., 2009; Nys et al., 2006; Pohjasvaara et al., 2000; Stephens et al., 2005; van Zandvoort, Kessels, Nys, de Haan, & Kappelle, 2005; Zinn et al., 2004). Moreover, cognitive defi cits are associated with a poorer quality of life (Moon, Kim, Kim, Won, & Kim, 2004; Nichols-Larsen, Clark, Zeringue, Greenspan, & Blanton, 2005; Paul et al., 2005) and depression (Kauhanen et al., 1999; Nys et al., 2006).
The kidney hepcidin/ferroportin axis controls iron reabsorption and determines the magnitude of kidney and systemic iron overload.
The hepcidin/ferroportin axis controls systemic iron homeostasis by regulating iron acquisition from the duodenum and reticuloendothelial system, respective sites of iron absorption and recycling. Ferroportin is also abundant in the kidney, where it has been implicated in tubular iron reabsorption. However, it remains unknown whether endogenous hepcidin regulates ferroportin-mediated iron reabsorption under physiological conditions, and whether such regulation is important for kidney and/or systemic iron homeostasis. To address these questions, we generated a novel mouse model with an inducible kidney-tubule specific knock-in of fpnC326Y, which encodes a hepcidin-resistant ferroportin termed FPNC326Y. Under conditions of normal iron availability, female mice harboring this allele had consistently decreased kidney iron but only transiently increased systemic iron indices. Under conditions of excess iron availability, male and female mice harboring this allele had milder kidney iron overload, but greater systemic iron overload relative to controls. Additionally, despite comparable systemic iron overload, kidney iron overload occurred in wild type mice fed an iron-loaded diet but not in hemochromatosis mice harboring a ubiquitous knock-in of fpnC326Y. Thus, our study demonstrates that endogenous hepcidin controls ferroportin-mediated tubular iron reabsorption under physiological conditions. It also shows that such control is important for both kidney and systemic iron homeostasis in the context of iron overload.
Diagnosis and prevalence of diabetic polyneuropathy: a cross-sectional study of Danish patients with type 2 diabetes.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes. Using the Toronto criteria for diabetic polyneuropathy and the grading system for neuropathic pain, the performance of neuropathy scales and questionnaires were assessed by comparing them to a clinical gold standard diagnosis of DPN and painful DPN in a cohort of patients with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A questionnaire on neuropathy and pain was sent to a cohort of 5514 Danish type 2 diabetes patients. A sample of 389 patients underwent a detailed clinical examination and completed neuropathy questionnaires and scales. RESULTS: Of the 389 patients with a median diabetes duration of 5.9 years, 126 had definite DPN (including 53 with painful DPN), 88 had probable DPN and 53 had possible DPN. There were 49 patients with other causes of polyneuropathy, neuropathy symptoms or pain, 10 with subclinical DPN and 63 without DPN. The sensitivity of the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument questionnaire to detect DPN was 25.7% and the specificity 84.6%. The sensitivity of the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Scoring System, including questionnaire and clinical examination, was 62.9% and the specificity was 74.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetic polyneuropathy affects approximately one in five Danish patients with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes but neuropathic pain is not as common as previously reported. Neuropathy scales with clinical examination perform better compared with questionnaires alone, but better scales are needed for future epidemiological studies.
Fine-mapping, trans-ancestral and genomic analyses identify causal variants, cells, genes and drug targets for type 1 diabetes.
We report the largest and most diverse genetic study of type 1 diabetes (T1D) to date (61,427 participants), yielding 78 genome-wide-significant (P
Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) has emerged as an essential technique for three-dimensional (3D) and live-cell super-resolution imaging. However, to date, there has not been a dedicated workshop or journal issue covering the various aspects of SIM, from bespoke hardware and software development and the use of commercial instruments to biological applications. This special issue aims to recap recent developments as well as outline future trends. In addition to SIM, we cover related topics such as complementary super-resolution microscopy techniques, computational imaging, visualization and image processing methods. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (part 1)'.
T cell and antibody responses induced by a single dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine in a phase 1/2 clinical trial.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), has caused a global pandemic, and safe, effective vaccines are urgently needed1. Strong, Th1-skewed T cell responses can drive protective humoral and cell-mediated immune responses2 and might reduce the potential for disease enhancement3. Cytotoxic T cells clear virus-infected host cells and contribute to control of infection4. Studies of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 have suggested a protective role for both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in recovery from COVID-19 (refs. 5,6). ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) is a candidate SARS-CoV-2 vaccine comprising a replication-deficient simian adenovirus expressing full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. We recently reported preliminary safety and immunogenicity data from a phase 1/2 trial of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (NCT04400838)7 given as either a one- or two-dose regimen. The vaccine was tolerated, with induction of neutralizing antibodies and antigen-specific T cells against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Here we describe, in detail, exploratory analyses of the immune responses in adults, aged 18-55 years, up to 8 weeks after vaccination with a single dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in this trial, demonstrating an induction of a Th1-biased response characterized by interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α cytokine secretion by CD4+ T cells and antibody production predominantly of IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses. CD8+ T cells, of monofunctional, polyfunctional and cytotoxic phenotypes, were also induced. Taken together, these results suggest a favorable immune profile induced by ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine, supporting the progression of this vaccine candidate to ongoing phase 2/3 trials to assess vaccine efficacy.
When and how does the auditory cortex influence subcortical auditory structures? 7 New insights about the roles of descending cortical projections.
For decades, the corticofugal descending projections have been anatomically well described but their functional role remains a puzzling question. In this review, we will first describe the contributions of neuronal networks in representing communication sounds in various types of 49 degraded acoustic conditions from the cochlear nucleus to the primary and secondary auditory cortex. In such situations, the discrimination abilities of collicular and thalamic neurons are clearly better than those of cortical neurons although the latter remain very little affected by degraded acoustic conditions. Second, we will report the functional effects resulting from activating or inactivating corticofugal projections on functional properties of subcortical neurons. In general, modest effects have been observed in anesthetized and in awake, passively listening, animals. In contrast, in behavioral tasks including challenging conditions, behavior56 al performance was severely reduced by removing or transiently silencing the corticofugal descending projections. This suggests that the discriminative abilities of subcortical neurons may be sufficient in many acoustic situations. It is only in particularly challenging situations, 59 either due to the task difficulties and/or to the degraded acoustic conditions that the corticofu60 gal descending connections bring additional abilities. Here, we propose that it is both the top down influences from the prefrontal cortex, and those from the neuromodulatory systems, which allow the cortical descending projections to impact behavioral performance in reshap63 ing the functional circuitry of subcortical structures. We aim at proposing potential scenarios to explain how, and under which circumstances, these projections impact on subcortical processing and on behavioral responses.
Optimising a Simple Fully Convolutional Network for Accurate Brain Age Prediction in the PAC 2019 Challenge.
Brain age prediction from brain MRI scans not only helps improve brain ageing modelling generally, but also provides benchmarks for predictive analysis methods. Brain-age delta, which is the difference between a subject's predicted age and true age, has become a meaningful biomarker for the health of the brain. Here, we report the details of our brain age prediction models and results in the Predictive Analysis Challenge 2019. The aim of the challenge was to use T1-weighted brain MRIs to predict a subject's age in multicentre datasets. We apply a lightweight deep convolutional neural network architecture, Simple Fully Convolutional Neural Network (SFCN), and combined several techniques including data augmentation, transfer learning, model ensemble, and bias correction for brain age prediction. The model achieved first place in both of the two objectives in the PAC 2019 brain age prediction challenge: Mean absolute error (MAE) = 2.90 years without bias removal (Second Place = 3.09 yrs; Third Place = 3.33 yrs), and MAE = 2.95 years with bias removal, leading by a large margin (Second Place = 3.80 yrs; Third Place = 3.92 yrs).
Pancreatic β-cells release insulin upon a rise in blood glucose. The precise mechanisms of stimulus-secretion coupling, and its failure in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2, remain to be elucidated. The consensus model, as well as a class of currently prescribed anti-diabetic drugs, are based around the observation that glucose-evoked ATP production in β-cells leads to closure of cell membrane ATP-gated potassium (KATP) channels, plasma membrane depolarisation, Ca2+ influx, and finally the exocytosis of insulin granules. However, it has been demonstrated by the inactivation of this pathway using genetic and pharmacological means that closure of the KATP channel alone may not be sufficient to explain all β-cell responses to glucose elevation. We have previously proposed that NAADP-evoked Ca2+ release is an important step in stimulus-secretion coupling in pancreatic β-cells. Here we show using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy that glucose as well as the Ca2+ mobilising messenger nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), known to operate in β-cells, lead to highly localised elementary intracellular Ca2+ signals. These were found to be obscured by measurements of global Ca2+ signals and the action of powerful SERCA-based sequestration mechanisms at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Building on our previous work demonstrating that NAADP-evoked Ca2+ release is an important step in stimulus-secretion coupling in pancreatic β-cells, we provide here the first demonstration of elementary Ca2+ signals in response to NAADP, whose occurrence was previously suspected. Optical quantal analysis of these events reveals a unitary event amplitude equivalent to that of known elementary Ca2+ signalling events, inositol trisphosphate (IP3) receptor mediated blips, and ryanodine receptor mediated quarks. We propose that a mechanism based on these highly localised intracellular Ca2+ signalling events mediated by NAADP may initially operate in β-cells when they respond to elevations in blood glucose.
The case of a man presenting with paedophilia who has found to be hyperprolactinaemic is described. There is possibly a link between paedophilia and endocrine disorders.