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Intended for use with the Guideline, this book combines the best available research with expert clinical recommendations, to help readers make the clinical decisions that are best for their patients.
This is a critical resource for clinicians in interpreting somatic symptoms and co-occurring medical disorders.
This is a critical resource for clinicians in interpreting somatic symptoms and co-occurring medical disorders.
since baseline levels of anxiety and arousal strongly predict the levels reached during panic challenges, expectancy effects could play a very significant role in the outcome of panic induction studies reports preliminary findings of two experiments [with panic disorder patients] investigating this hypothesis by manipulating expectancy effects directly via instructions our results show strong and consistent effects of a simple expectancy manipulation on subsequent responses to HV [hyperventilation] stress in panic patients and normal controls
New to This Edition *Incorporates major advances in research and clinical practice. *Chapters on additional evidence-based individual treatments: prolonged exposure therapy, cognitive therapy, cognitive processing therapy, brief eclectic ...
This book bridges the gap between evidence-based guidelines and routine practice in the real world.
Niemann-Pick type C disease is a lysosomal storage disease affecting primarily the nervous system that results in premature death. Here we present the first report and investigation of Niemann-Pick type C disease in Australian Angus/Angus-cross calves. After a preliminary diagnosis of Niemann-Pick type C, samples from two affected calves and two obligate carriers were analysed using single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and homozygosity mapping, and NPC1 was considered as a positional candidate gene. A likely causal missense variant on chromosome 24 in the NPC1 gene (NM_174758.2:c.2969C>G) was identified by Sanger sequencing of cDNA. SIFT analysis, protein alignment and protein modelling predicted the variant to be deleterious to protein function. Segregation of the variant with disease was confirmed in two additional affected calves and two obligate carrier dams. Genotyping of 403 animals from the original herd identified an estimated allele frequency of 3.5%. The Niemann-Pick type C phenotype was additionally confirmed via biochemical analysis of Lysotracker Green, cholesterol, sphingosine and glycosphingolipids in fibroblast cell cultures originating from two affected calves. The identification of a novel missense variant for Niemann-Pick type C disease in Angus/Angus-cross cattle will enable improved breeding and management of this disease in at-risk populations. The results from this study offer a unique opportunity to further the knowledge of human Niemann-Pick type C disease through the potential availability of a bovine model of disease.
Investigating the Mechanism of Cyclodextrins in the Treatment of Niemann-Pick Disease Type C Using Crosslinked 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin.
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a severe disorder that is characterized by intracellular transport abnormalities leading to cytoplasmic accumulation of lipids such as cholesterol and sphingolipids. The compound 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) has high cholesterol complexation capacity and is currently under clinical investigation for the NPC treatment. However, due to its short blood half-life, high doses are required to produce a therapeutic effect. In this work, stable polymerized HPβCD is generated to investigate their in vitro mechanisms of action and in vivo effects. Crosslinked CDs (8-312 kDa) display a ninefold greater cholesterol complexation capacity than monomeric HPβCD but are taken up to a lower extent, resulting in an overall comparable in vitro effect. In vivo, the 19.3 kDa HPβCD exhibits a longer half-life than the monomeric HPβCD but it does not increase the life span of Npc1 mice, possibly due to reduced brain penetration. This is circumvented by the application of magnetic resonance imaging-guided low intensity-pulsed focused ultrasound (MRIg-FUS), which increases the brain penetration of the CD. In conclusion, stable polymerized HPβCDs can elucidate CDs' mechanism of action while the use of MRIg-FUS warrants further investigation, as it may be key to harnessing CDs full therapeutic potential in the NPC treatment.
A master protocol to investigate a novel therapy acetyl-L-leucine for three ultra-rare neurodegenerative diseases: Niemann-Pick type C, the GM2 gangliosidoses, and ataxia telangiectasia.
BACKGROUND: The lack of approved treatments for the majority of rare diseases is reflective of the unique challenges of orphan drug development. Novel methodologies, including new functionally relevant endpoints, are needed to render the development process more feasible and appropriate for these rare populations and thereby expedite the approval of promising treatments to address patients' high unmet medical need. Here, we describe the development of an innovative master protocol and primary outcome assessment to investigate the modified amino acid N-acetyl-L-leucine (Sponsor Code: IB1001) in three separate, multinational, phase II trials for three ultra-rare, autosomal-recessive, neurodegenerative disorders: Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC), GM2 gangliosidoses (Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff disease; "GM2"), and ataxia telangiectasia (A-T). METHODS/DESIGN: The innovative IB1001 master protocol and novel CI-CS primary endpoints were developed through a close collaboration between the Industry Sponsor, Key Opinion Leaders, representatives of the Patient Communities, and National Regulatory Authorities. As a result, the open-label, rater-blinded study design is considerate of the practical limitations of recruitment and retention of subjects in these ultra-orphan populations. The novel primary endpoint, the Clinical Impression of Change in Severity© (CI-CS), accommodates the heterogenous clinical presentation of NPC, GM2, and A-T: at screening, the principal investigator appoints for each patient a primary anchor test (either the 8-m walk test (8MWT) or 9-hole peg test of the dominant hand (9HPT-D)) based on his/her unique clinical symptoms. The anchor tests are videoed in a standardized manner at each visit to capture all aspects related to the patient's functional performance. The CI-CS assessment is ultimately performed by independent, blinded raters who compare videos of the primary anchor test from three periods: baseline, the end of treatment, and the end of a post-treatment washout. Blinded to the time point of each video, the raters make an objective comparison scored on a 7-point Likert scale of the change in the severity of the patient's neurological signs and symptoms from video A to video B. To investigate both the symptomatic and disease-modifying effects of treatment, N-acetyl-L-leucine is assessed during two treatment sequences: a 6-week parent study and 1-year extension phase. DISCUSSION: The novel CI-CS assessment, developed through a collaboration of all stakeholders, is advantageous in that it better ensures the primary endpoint is functionally relevant for each patient, is able to capture small but meaningful clinical changes critical to the patients' quality of life (fine-motor skills; gait), and blinds the primary outcome assessment. The results of these three trials will inform whether N-acetyl-L-leucine is an effective treatment for NPC, GM2, and A-T and can also serve as a new therapeutic paradigm for the development of future treatments for other orphan diseases. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The three trials (IB1001-201 for Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC), IB1001-202 for GM2 gangliosidoses (Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff), IB1001-203 for ataxia telangiectasia (A-T)) have been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03759639; NCT03759665; NCT03759678), www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu (EudraCT: 2018-004331-71; 2018-004406-25; 2018-004407-39), and https://www.germanctr.de (DR KS-ID: DRKS00016567; DRKS00017539; DRKS00020511).
The transcription factor EB (TFEB) has emerged as a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis, exocytosis, and autophagy, promoting the clearance of substrates stored in cells. c-Abl is a tyrosine kinase that participates in cellular signaling in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this study, we explored the connection between c-Abl and TFEB. Here, we show that under pharmacological and genetic c-Abl inhibition, TFEB translocates into the nucleus promoting the expression of its target genes independently of its well-known regulator, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1. Active c-Abl induces TFEB phosphorylation on tyrosine and the inhibition of this kinase promotes lysosomal biogenesis, autophagy, and exocytosis. c-Abl inhibition in Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) models, a neurodegenerative disease characterized by cholesterol accumulation in lysosomes, promotes a cholesterol-lowering effect in a TFEB-dependent manner. Thus, c-Abl is a TFEB regulator that mediates its tyrosine phosphorylation, and the inhibition of c-Abl activates TFEB promoting cholesterol clearance in NPC models.
Lipid-mediated motor-adaptor sequestration impairs axonal lysosome delivery leading to autophagic stress and dystrophy in Niemann-Pick type C.
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder characterized by lipid accumulation in endolysosomes. An early pathologic hallmark is axonal dystrophy occurring at presymptomatic stages in NPC mice. However, the mechanisms underlying this pathologic change remain obscure. Here, we demonstrate that endocytic-autophagic organelles accumulate in NPC dystrophic axons. Using super-resolution and live-neuron imaging, we reveal that elevated cholesterol on NPC lysosome membranes sequesters kinesin-1 and Arl8 independent of SKIP and Arl8-GTPase activity, resulting in impaired lysosome transport into axons, contributing to axonal autophagosome accumulation. Pharmacologic reduction of lysosomal membrane cholesterol with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) or elevated Arl8b expression rescues lysosome transport, thereby reducing axonal autophagic stress and neuron death in NPC. These findings demonstrate a pathological mechanism by which altered membrane lipid composition impairs lysosome delivery into axons and provide biological insights into the translational application of HPCD in restoring axonal homeostasis at early stages of NPC disease.
Associations of dietary markers with brain volume and connectivity: A systematic review of MRI studies
The high prevalence of unhealthy dietary patterns and related brain disorders, such as dementia, emphasizes the importance of research that examines the effect of dietary factors on brain health. Identifying markers of brain health, such as volume and connectivity, that relate to diet is an important first step towards understanding the lifestyle determinants of healthy brain ageing. We conducted a systematic review of 52 studies (total n=21,221 healthy participants aged 26-80 years, 55% female) that assessed with a range of MRI measurements, which brain areas, connections, and cerebrovascular factors were associated with dietary markers. We found associations between a wide range of regional brain measures and dietary health. Collectively, lower diet quality was related to reduced brain volume and connectivity, especially in white and grey matter of the frontal, temporal and parietal lobe, cingulate, entorhinal cortex and the hippocampus. Associations were also observed in connecting fibre pathways and in particular the default-mode, sensorimotor and attention networks. However, there were also some inconsistencies in research methods and findings. We recommend that future research use more comprehensive and consistent dietary measures, more representative samples, and examine the role of key subcortical regions previously highlighted in relevant animal work.
Adolescents' perceived barriers and facilitators to seeking and accessing professional help for anxiety and depressive disorders: a qualitative interview study.
Anxiety and depressive disorders are the most common mental health disorders in adolescents, yet only a minority of young people with these disorders access professional help. This study aims to address this treatment gap by improving our understanding of barriers and facilitators to seeking/accessing professional help as perceived by adolescents with anxiety/depressive disorders identified in the community. Twenty-two adolescents, aged 11-17 years, who met diagnostic criteria for a current anxiety and/or depressive disorder were identified through school-based screening. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted one-to-one with each adolescent and adolescents' parents were interviewed separately for the purpose of data triangulation. Data were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. We identified four themes capturing adolescent perceived barriers and facilitators to seeking/accessing professional help for anxiety and depressive disorders: (1) making sense of difficulties, (2) problem disclosure, (3) ambivalence to seeking help, and (4) the instrumental role of others. Barriers/facilitators identified within each theme reflect important developmental characteristics of adolescence, such as a growing need for autonomy and concerns around negative social evaluation. At the same time, the results highlight adolescents' dependency on other people, mainly their parents and school staff, when it comes to successfully accessing professional help for their mental health difficulties. This study identifies a number of barriers/facilitators that influence help-seeking behaviour of adolescents with anxiety and/or depressive disorders. These factors need to be addressed when targeting treatment utilisation rates in this particular group of young people.
Codesign and development of a primary school based pathway for child anxiety screening and intervention delivery: a protocol, mixed-methods feasibility study.
INTRODUCTION: Anxiety difficulties are among the most common mental health problems in childhood. Despite this, few children access evidence-based interventions, and school may be an ideal setting to improve children's access to treatment. This article describes the design, methods and expected data collection of the Identifying Child Anxiety Through Schools - Identification to Intervention (iCATS i2i) study, which aims to develop acceptable school-based procedures to identify and support child anxiety difficulties. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: iCATS i2i will use a mixed-methods approach to codesign and deliver a set of procedures-or 'pathway'-to improve access to evidence-based intervention for child anxiety difficulties through primary schools in England. The study will consist of four stages, initially involving in-depth interviews with parents, children, school staff and stakeholders (stage 1) to inform the development of the pathway. The pathway will then be administered in two primary schools, including screening, feedback to parents and the offer of treatment where indicated (stage 2), with participating children, parents and school staff invited to provide feedback on their experience (stages 3 and 4). Data will be analysed using Template Analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The iCATS i2i study was approved by the University of Oxford's Research Ethics Committee (REF R64620/RE001). It is expected that this codesign study will lead on to a future feasibility study and, if indicated, a randomised controlled trial. The findings will be disseminated in several ways, including via lay summary report, publication in academic journals and presentation at conferences. By providing information on child, parent, school staff and other stakeholder's experiences, we anticipate that the findings will inform the development of an acceptable evidence-based pathway for identification and intervention for children with anxiety difficulties in primary schools and may also inform broader approaches to screening for and treating youth mental health problems outside of clinics.
The emergence of endo-lysosomes as ubiquitous Ca2+ stores with their unique cohort of channels has resulted in their being implicated in a growing number of processes in an ever-increasing number of cell types. The architectural and regulatory constraints of these acidic Ca2+ stores distinguishes them from other larger Ca2+ sources such as the ER and influx across the plasma membrane. In view of recent advances in the understanding of the modes of operation, we discuss phagocytosis as a template for how endo-lysosomal Ca2+ signals (generated via TPC and TRPML channels) can be integrated in multiple sophisticated ways into biological processes. Phagocytosis illustrates how different endo-lysosomal Ca2+ signals drive different phases of a process, and how these can be altered by disease or infection.
© 2021 The Author(s) In altricial birds, leaving the nest is a key life history transition associated with a high risk of mortality. Studies of numerous species have shown that young typically fledge early in the day, and it is often asserted that early fledging is important for survival; however, evidence for this hypothesis is limited. We used an automated monitoring system to obtain precise fledging times of 1582 young blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus, from 230 nests. As expected, nestlings primarily fledged early in the day (84% fledged before midday). However, we found no evidence that early fledging was associated with higher postfledging survival (i.e. recorded the following autumn or later). We propose two alternative explanations for the morning peak in fledging. Hypothesis 1 is that some offspring reach a developmental threshold for fledging overnight and leave the nest early the next day. This is supported by our observation that offspring that fledged early in the day tended to be more developed than those that fledged later in the day, that is, they were older and had a high body mass (measured at 14 days of age) for their fledging age. Hypothesis 2 is that the timing of fledging is related to parental provisioning behaviour. Our results do not support this hypothesis. Parents reduced their nest visit rate over the course of the day, but offspring did not fledge earlier when their parents decreased their visit rate more strongly with time of day. In conclusion, our results do not support the notion that the time of fledging affects survival but suggest a link with nestling development.