Therapeutic non-invasive brain stimulation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: rationale, methods and experience.
Edmond EC., Stagg CJ., Turner MR.
The neurodegenerative syndrome amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterised by increased cortical excitability, thought to reflect pathological changes in the balance of local excitatory and inhibitory neuronal influences. Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been shown to modulate cortical activity, with some protocols showing effects that outlast the stimulation by months. NIBS has been suggested as a potential therapeutic approach for disorders associated with changes in cortical neurophysiology, including ALS. This article reviews NIBS methodology, rationale for its application to ALS and progress to date.