Mechanisms and implications of phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta in promoting neutrophil trafficking into inflamed tissue.
Puri KD., Doggett TA., Douangpanya J., Hou Y., Tino WT., Wilson T., Graf T., Clayton E., Turner M., Hayflick JS., Diacovo TG.
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) catalytic subunit p110 delta is expressed in neutrophils and is thought to play a role in their accumulation at sites of inflammation by contributing to chemoattractant-directed migration. We report here that p110 delta is present in endothelial cells and participates in neutrophil trafficking by modulating the proadhesive state of these cells in response to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). Specifically, administration of the selective inhibitor of PI3K delta, IC87114, to animals reduced neutrophil tethering to and increased rolling velocities on cytokine-activated microvessels in a manner similar to that observed in mice deficient in p110 delta. These results were confirmed in vitro as inhibition of this isoform in endothelium, but not neutrophils, diminished cell attachment in flow. A role for PI3K delta in TNF alpha-induced signaling is demonstrated by a reduction in Akt-phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) enzyme activity upon treatment of this cell type with IC87114. p110 delta expressed in neutrophils also contributes to trafficking as demonstrated by the impaired movement of these cells across inflamed venules in animals in which this catalytic subunit was blocked or genetically deleted, results corroborated in transwell migration assays. Thus, PI3K delta may be a reasonable therapeutic target in specific inflammatory conditions as blockade of its activity reduces neutrophil influx into tissues by diminishing their attachment to and migration across vascular endothelium.