The association between angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism and coronary calcification. The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study.
Oei H-HS., Sayed-Tabatabaei FA., Hofman A., Oudkerk M., van Duijn CM., Witteman JCM.
BACKGROUND: An insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the gene encoding angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) has been associated with serum ACE levels. The association between the ACE I/D polymorphism and coronary heart disease is unclear. Electron-beam-computed tomography (EBT) is a technique to non-invasively quantify the amount of coronary calcification. We investigated the association between the ACE I/D polymorphism and coronary calcification. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study is a population-based study in subjects aged 55 years and over. EBT scanning was performed in 2013 participants. Coronary calcification was quantified according to the Agatston score. The ACE I/D polymorphism was available for 1976 subjects. Geometric mean calcium scores in men with the II, ID and DD genotype were 167, 207 and 219, respectively. However, the difference in calcium score (p=0.19 for ID versus II; p=0.15 for DD versus II) and the trend (ptrend=0.17) were not significant. Calcium scores in women with the II, ID and DD genotype were 44, 42 and 36, respectively. There were no significant differences in calcium score (p=0.78 for ID versus II; p=0.29 for DD versus II), neither was the trend (ptrend=0.27). After we stratified on cardiovascular risk factors, no associations were present. CONCLUSION: The present study failed to show an association between the ACE I/D polymorphism and coronary calcification in the general population. Also, no significant associations were present between the ACE I/D polymorphism and coronary calcification in strata of cardiovascular risk factors.