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Purpose of Review: This review aims to survey recent trends in electrical forms of neuromodulation, with a specific application to Parkinson's disease (PD). Emerging trends are identified, highlighting synergies in state-of-the-art neuromodulation strategies, with directions for future improvements in stimulation efficacy suggested. Recent Findings: Deep brain stimulation remains the most common and effective form of electrical stimulation for the treatment of PD. Evidence suggests that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) most likely impacts the motor symptoms of the disease, with the most prominent results relating to rehabilitation. However, utility is limited due to its weak effects and high variability, with medication state a key confound for efficacy level. Recent innovations in transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) offer new areas for investigation. Summary: Our understanding of the mechanistic foundations of electrical current stimulation is advancing and as it does so, trends emerge which steer future clinical trials towards greater efficacy.

Original publication




Journal article


Curr Behav Neurosci Rep

Publication Date





170 - 178


Deep brain stimulation (DBS), Direct cortical stimulation, Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)