Adaptive Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders.
Beudel M., Cagnan H., Little S.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has markedly changed how we treat movement disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD), dystonia, and essential tremor (ET). However, despite its demonstrable clinical benefit, DBS is often limited by side effects and partial efficacy. These limitations may be due in part to the fact that DBS interferes with both pathological and physiological neural activities. DBS could, therefore, be potentially improved were it applied selectively and only at times of enhanced pathological activity. This form of stimulation is known as closed-loop or adaptive DBS (aDBS). An aDBS approach has been shown to be superior to conventional DBS in PD in primates using cortical neuronal spike triggering and in humans employing local field potential biomarkers. Likewise, aDBS studies for essential and Parkinsonian tremor are advancing and show great promise, using both peripheral or central sensing and stimulation. aDBS has not yet been trialed in dystonia and yet exciting and promising biomarkers suggest it could be beneficial here too. In this chapter, we will review the existing literature on aDBS in movement disorders and explore potential biomarkers and stimulation algorithms for applying aDBS in PD, ET, and dystonia.