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Hox genes are implicated in the control of axial patterning during embryonic development of many, perhaps all, animals. Here we review recent data on Hox gene diversity, genomic organization, and embryonic expression in chordates (including tunicates, amphioxus, hagfish, lampreys, teleosts) plus their putative sister group, the hemichordates. We consider the potential of comparative Hox gene data to resolve some outstanding controversies in chordate phylogeny. The use of Hox gene expression patterns to identify homologies between body plans both within the vertebrates and between the chordate subphyla is also discussed. Homology between the vertebrate hindbrain and an extensive region of amphioxus neural tube is suggested by comparison of Hox-3 homologues and strengthened by new data on amphioxus Hox-1 gene expression reported here. Finally, we give two examples of how Hox genes are giving glimpses into chordate developmental evolution. The first relates changes in Hox gene expression to transposition of vertebral of vertebral identities; the second describes a correlation between vertebrate origins and Hox gene cluster duplication. We suggest that the simultaneous duplication of many classes of genes, often interacting in gene networks, allowed the elaboration of new developmental control mechanisms at vertebrate origins.

Original publication




Journal article


Dev Biol

Publication Date





382 - 395


Animals, Biological Evolution, Chordata, Nonvertebrate, Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental, Genes, Homeobox, Phylogeny, Vertebrates