Evolutionary consequences of habitat fragmentation in a localized butterfly
Thomas CD., Hill JK., Lewis OT.
1. Theoretical studies of the costs and benefits of migration predict that evolutionary changes in dispersal traits may take place in response to habitat fragmentation. 2. For the butterfly Plebejus argus, we investigated five morphological characters potentially associated with flight ability, in locations that varied in level of habitat fragmentation. The traits were: total mass, relative thorax mass (containing flight muscle), relative abdomen mass (containing reproductive organs), relative wing area and wing aspect ratio. All characters were measured on individuals reared in a common environment. 3. Morphology was related to the level of habitat fragmentation in both limestone and heathland habitats. Total mass increased with decreasing heathland habitat area (over the range 13000-10 ha). Relative allocation to the thorax increased, while allocation to the abdomen decreased, with declining limestone habitat area (over the range 3.5-0.2 ha). Morphological characters were not significantly correlated with habitat isolation. 4. Significant family effects for total mass, relative thorax mass, relative abdomen mass and (for females only) relative wing area indicate that these traits may have a heritable component, and therefore have the potential to respond to selection acting on flight ability. 5. We suggest that evolutionary changes in life history traits are taking place in response to changes in landscape structure: in P. argus, these traits may be influenced by the effects of mate-location strategy on emigration rates. Specific changes in traits can be complex, and may vary among species and populations. 6. P. argus had a 50% chance of occurring in heathland fragments of 33 ha, and was present on all heathlands above 50 ha, but population systems may not yet have achieved equilibrium. P. argus is unlikely to undertake major evolutionary changes in response to reduced habitat area in heathlands > 50 ha. Extinctions from smaller heathlands can be explained most plausibly by population/vegetation dynamics. Therefore, evolutionary changes in morphology may be more likely to be symptomatic of populations with altered costs and benefits of migration, rather than to be a direct cause of extinction.