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When cells kill themselves, they usually do so by activating mechanisms that have evolved specifically for that purpose. These mechanisms, which are broadly conserved throughout the metazoa, involve two processes: activation in the cytosol of latent cysteine proteases (termed caspases), and disruption of mitochondrial functions. These processes are linked in a number of different ways. While active caspases can cleave proteins in the mitochondrial outer membrane, and cleave and thereby activate certain pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family, proteins released from the mitochondria can trigger caspase activation and antagonise IAP family proteins. This review will focus on the pro-apoptotic molecules that are released from the mitochondria of cells endeavouring to kill themselves. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Mitochondria: the deadly organelle.

Original publication




Journal article

Publication Date





546 - 550


Animals, Apoptosis, Humans, Mitochondria, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2