Scc2 Is a Potent Activator of Cohesin's ATPase that Promotes Loading by Binding Scc1 without Pds5.
Petela NJ., Gligoris TG., Metson J., Lee B-G., Voulgaris M., Hu B., Kikuchi S., Chapard C., Chen W., Rajendra E., Srinivisan M., Yu H., Löwe J., Nasmyth KA.
Cohesin organizes DNA into chromatids, regulates enhancer-promoter interactions, and confers sister chromatid cohesion. Its association with chromosomes is regulated by hook-shaped HEAT repeat proteins that bind Scc1, namely Scc3, Pds5, and Scc2. Unlike Pds5, Scc2 is not a stable cohesin constituent but, as shown here, transiently replaces Pds5. Scc1 mutations that compromise its interaction with Scc2 adversely affect cohesin's ATPase activity and loading. Moreover, Scc2 mutations that alter how the ATPase responds to DNA abolish loading despite cohesin's initial association with loading sites. Lastly, Scc2 mutations that permit loading in the absence of Scc4 increase Scc2's association with chromosomal cohesin and reduce that of Pds5. We suggest that cohesin switches between two states: one with Pds5 bound that is unable to hydrolyze ATP efficiently but is capable of release from chromosomes and another in which Scc2 replaces Pds5 and stimulates ATP hydrolysis necessary for loading and translocation from loading sites.