Abiotic stress-induced chloroplast proteome remodelling: a mechanistic overview.
Watson SJ., Sowden RG., Jarvis P.
The chloroplast houses photosynthesis in all green plants, and is therefore of fundamental importance to the viability and productivity of plants, ecosystems, and agriculture. Chloroplasts are, however, extremely vulnerable to environmental stress, on account of the inherent volatility of oxygenic photosynthesis. To counteract this sensitivity, sophisticated systems of chloroplast stress acclimation have evolved, and many of these involve broad proteome changes. Here, we provide an overview of the interlocking and mutually dependent mechanisms of abiotic stress-induced chloroplast proteome remodelling. Topics that are covered in this context include: nucleus to chloroplast signalling mechanisms, with a particular emphasis on the nuclear control of the chloroplast genome; chloroplast to nucleus signalling; and the roles of chloroplast pre-protein import regulation and chloroplast proteases.