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An analysis was made of cell length and cycle time in time-lapse films of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe using wild-type (WT) cells and those of various mutants. The more important conclusions about 'size controls' are: (1) there is a marker in G2 in WT cells provided by a rate change point (RCP) where the linear rate of length growth increases by approximately 30%. The period before this RCP is dependent on size and can be called a 'sizer'. The period after the RCP is nearly independent of size and can be called a 'timer'. The achievement of a critical threshold size is at or near the RCP which is on average at about 0.3 of the cycle (halfway through G2). This is much earlier than was previously believed. (2) The RCP is at about the time when H1 histone kinase activity and the B type cyclin cdc13 start to rise in preparation for mitosis. The RCP is also associated with other metabolic changes. (3) In wee1 mutants, the mitotic size control is replaced by a G1/S size control which is as strong as the mitotic control. As in WT cells, there is a sizer which precedes the RCP followed by a timer but the RCP is at about the G1/S boundary and has a larger increase (approximately 100%) in rate. (4) cdc25 is not an essential part of the size control at mitosis or at the G1/S boundary. (5) Three further situations have been examined in which the mitotic size control has been abolished. First, induction synchronisation by block and release of cdc2 and cdc10. In the largest oversize-cells which are produced, the RCP is pushed back to the beginning of the cycle. There is no sizer period but only a timer. Second, when both the antagonists wee1 and cdc25 are absent in the double mutant wee1-50 cdc25 delta. In this interesting situation there is apparently no mitotic size control and the cycle times are quantised. Third, in rum1 delta wee1-50 where the normal long G1 in wee1 is much reduced, there is probably no size control either in G1 or in G2 causing a continuous shortening of division length from cycle to cycle.

Type

Journal article

Journal

J Cell Sci

Publication Date

1996

Volume

109 ( Pt 12)

Pages

2947 - 2957

Keywords

Cell Cycle Proteins/physiology Cell Size DNA Replication Fungal Proteins/physiology GTP-Binding Proteins/physiology Mutagenesis Nuclear Proteins/physiology Phosphoprotein Phosphatases/physiology Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/physiology Schizosaccharomyces/*cytology/genetics *Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins cdc25 Phosphatases