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Long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission can be induced by several mechanisms, one thought to involve Ca2+-dependent activation of postsynaptic nitric oxide (NO) synthase and subsequent diffusion of NO to the presynaptic terminal. We used the stable NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) to study the NO-dependent form of LTD at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in vitro. SNAP (100 microM) enhanced the induction of LTD via a cascade that was blocked by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (50 microM), NO guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one (10 microM), and the PKG inhibitor KT5823 (1 microM). We further show that LTD induced by low-frequency stimulation in the absence of SNAP also is blocked by KT5823 or Rp-8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate (10 microM), cyclic guanosine 3',5' monophosphate-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitors with different mechanisms of action. Furthermore SNAP-facilitated LTD was blocked when release from intracellular calcium stores was inhibited by ryanodine (10 microM). Finally, two cell-permeant antagonists of the cyclic ADP-ribose binding site on ryanodine receptors also were able to block the induction of LTD. These results support a cascade for induction of homosynaptic, NO-dependent LTD involving activation of guanylyl cyclase, production of guanosine 3',5' cyclic monophosphate and subsequent PKG activation. This process has an additional requirement for release of Ca2+ from ryanodine-sensitive stores, perhaps dependent on the second-messenger cyclic ADP ribose.

Original publication




Journal article


J Neurophysiol

Publication Date





1569 - 1576


Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose, Animals, Calcium, Cyclic ADP-Ribose, Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases, Electric Stimulation, Female, Guanylate Cyclase, Hippocampus, Long-Term Potentiation, Male, Nitric Oxide, Nitric Oxide Donors, Penicillamine, Protein Kinases, Rats, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate, Ryanodine, Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel, S-Nitroso-N-Acetylpenicillamine, Synapses