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The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase (pol) II comprises conserved heptad repeats, and post-translational modification of the CTD regulates transcription and cotranscriptional RNA processing. Recently, the spatial patterns of modification of the CTD repeats have been investigated, and new functions of CTD modification have been revealed. In addition, there are new insights into the roles of the enzymes that decorate the CTD. We review these new findings and reassess the role of the pol II CTD in the regulation of gene expression.

Original publication




Journal article


Nat Struct Mol Biol

Publication Date





771 - 777


Animals, Consensus Sequence, Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 9, DNA Polymerase II, Gene Expression Regulation, Humans, Phosphorylation, Protein Domains, Protein Processing, Post-Translational, Protein Subunits, Transcription, Genetic