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BACKGROUND: Limited information is available on whether antipsychotics prescribed in pregnancy are associated with increased risks of adverse outcomes. METHODS: We used electronic health records from pregnant women and their children to examine risks of adverse maternal and child outcomes in three cohorts of women who: (A) received antipsychotic treatment in pregnancy (n=416) (B) discontinued antipsychotic treatment before pregnancy (n=670), and (C) had no records of antipsychotic treatment before or during pregnancy (n=318,434). Absolute and risk ratios were estimated and adjusted for health and lifestyle and concomitant medications. RESULTS: Caesarean section was more common in cohort A (25%) than C (18%), but non-significant after adjustment for health and lifestyle factors (Risk Ratio (adj.) 1.09 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.30). Proportion of gestational diabetes was similar in cohort A (2.6%) and B (2.7%), but lower in A than B after adjustments (RRadj: 0.43 (0.20, 0.93). Premature birth/low birthweight were more common in cohort A (10%) than B (4.3%) and C (3.9%), A versus B (RRadj: 2.04 (1.13, 3.67), A versus C (RRadj: 1.43 (0.99, 2.05). Major congenital malformations were more common in A (3.4%), than B (2.2%) and C (2%). However no significant difference was observed (A versus B: RRadj: 1.79 (0.72, 4.47) A versus C RRadj: 1.59 (0.84, 3.00)). Risks estimates were similar for women prescribed atypical and typical antipsychotics. CONCLUSIONS: Antipsychotic treatment in pregnancy carries limited risks of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes once adjustments have been made for health and lifestyle factors.

Original publication




Journal article


Schizophr Res

Publication Date





349 - 356


Antipsychotic treatment, Electronic health records, Pregnancy, Adolescent, Adult, Antipsychotic Agents, Cesarean Section, Child, Cohort Studies, Congenital Abnormalities, Diabetes, Gestational, Electronic Health Records, Female, Humans, Infant, Low Birth Weight, Male, Middle Aged, Pregnancy, Pregnancy Complications, Premature Birth, Risk, Young Adult