Risks associated with antipsychotic treatment in pregnancy: Comparative cohort studies based on electronic health records.
Petersen I., Sammon CJ., McCrea RL., Osborn DPJ., Evans SJ., Cowen PJ., Nazareth I.
BACKGROUND: Limited information is available on whether antipsychotics prescribed in pregnancy are associated with increased risks of adverse outcomes. METHODS: We used electronic health records from pregnant women and their children to examine risks of adverse maternal and child outcomes in three cohorts of women who: (A) received antipsychotic treatment in pregnancy (n=416) (B) discontinued antipsychotic treatment before pregnancy (n=670), and (C) had no records of antipsychotic treatment before or during pregnancy (n=318,434). Absolute and risk ratios were estimated and adjusted for health and lifestyle and concomitant medications. RESULTS: Caesarean section was more common in cohort A (25%) than C (18%), but non-significant after adjustment for health and lifestyle factors (Risk Ratio (adj.) 1.09 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.30). Proportion of gestational diabetes was similar in cohort A (2.6%) and B (2.7%), but lower in A than B after adjustments (RRadj: 0.43 (0.20, 0.93). Premature birth/low birthweight were more common in cohort A (10%) than B (4.3%) and C (3.9%), A versus B (RRadj: 2.04 (1.13, 3.67), A versus C (RRadj: 1.43 (0.99, 2.05). Major congenital malformations were more common in A (3.4%), than B (2.2%) and C (2%). However no significant difference was observed (A versus B: RRadj: 1.79 (0.72, 4.47) A versus C RRadj: 1.59 (0.84, 3.00)). Risks estimates were similar for women prescribed atypical and typical antipsychotics. CONCLUSIONS: Antipsychotic treatment in pregnancy carries limited risks of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes once adjustments have been made for health and lifestyle factors.