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A survey of 794 subjects volunteering for studies of panic disorder with or without phobic avoidance revealed that fewer than 15% had received imipramine and fewer than 15% had undergone in vivo exposure, although the majority had engaged in some form of counseling and had used benzodiazepines. Subjects with spontaneous panic attacks reported more avoidance than subjects with situational attacks. One-half of the subjects were unemployed. The authors recommend wider use of the available effective treatments for panic disorder and phobic avoidance.

Original publication




Journal article


Am J Psychiatry

Publication Date





1423 - 1426


Adult, Anxiety Disorders, Behavior Therapy, Benzodiazepines, Fear, Female, Humans, Imipramine, Male, Middle Aged, Panic, Phobic Disorders