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© 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. The image quality of high-resolution fluorescence microscopes is often compromised by aberrations, particularly when they are used to focus deep into tissue specimens. The techniques of adaptive optics have been developed to overcome the problems caused by aberrations. The various components of an adaptive optical system are discussed alongside specific considerations that must be made in the design of adaptive fluorescence microscopes. Different implementations are outlined and the future of this technology is discussed.

Original publication





Book title

Fluorescence Microscopy: Super-Resolution and other Novel Techniques

Publication Date



15 - 33