Charting the landscape of priority problems in psychiatry, part 1: classification and diagnosis.
Stephan KE., Bach DR., Fletcher PC., Flint J., Frank MJ., Friston KJ., Heinz A., Huys QJM., Owen MJ., Binder EB., Dayan P., Johnstone EC., Meyer-Lindenberg A., Montague PR., Schnyder U., Wang XJ., Breakspear M.
Contemporary psychiatry faces major challenges. Its syndrome-based disease classification is not based on mechanisms and does not guide treatment, which largely depends on trial and error. The development of therapies is hindered by ignorance of potential beneficiary patient subgroups. Neuroscientific and genetics research have yet to affect disease definitions or contribute to clinical decision making. In this challenging setting, what should psychiatric research focus on? In two companion papers, we present a list of problems nominated by clinicians and researchers from different disciplines as candidates for future scientific investigation of mental disorders. These problems are loosely grouped into challenges concerning nosology and diagnosis (this Personal View) and problems related to pathogenesis and aetiology (in the companion Personal View). Motivated by successful examples in other disciplines, particularly the list of Hilbert's problems in mathematics, this subjective and eclectic list of priority problems is intended for psychiatric researchers, helping to re-focus existing research and providing perspectives for future psychiatric science.