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© 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Two decades of clinical experience with immunomodulatory treatments for multiple sclerosis point to distinct immunological pathways that drive disease relapses and progression. In light of this, we discuss our current understanding of multiple sclerosis immunopathology, evaluate long-standing hypotheses regarding the role of the immune system in the disease and delineate key questions that are still unanswered. Recent and anticipated advances in the field of immunology, and the increasing recognition of inflammation as an important component of neurodegeneration, are shaping our conceptualization of disease pathophysiology, and we explore the potential implications for improved healthcare provision to patients in the future.

Original publication

DOI

10.1038/nri3871

Type

Journal article

Journal

Nature Reviews Immunology

Publication Date

01/01/2015

Volume

15

Pages

545 - 558