Gambling problems in bipolar disorder in the UK: prevalence and distribution.
Jones L., Metcalf A., Gordon-Smith K., Forty L., Perry A., Lloyd J., Geddes JR., Goodwin GM., Jones I., Craddock N., Rogers RD.
BACKGROUND: North American studies show bipolar disorder is associated with elevated rates of problem gambling; however, little is known about rates in the different presentations of bipolar illness. AIMS: To determine the prevalence and distribution of problem gambling in people with bipolar disorder in the UK. METHOD: The Problem Gambling Severity Index was used to measure gambling problems in 635 participants with bipolar disorder. RESULTS: Moderate to severe gambling problems were four times higher in people with bipolar disorder than in the general population, and were associated with type 2 disorder (OR = 1.74, P = 0.036), history of suicidal ideation or attempt (OR = 3.44, P = 0.02) and rapid cycling (OR = 2.63, P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 1 in 10 patients with bipolar disorder may be at moderate to severe risk of problem gambling, possibly associated with suicidal behaviour and a rapid cycling course. Elevated rates of gambling problems in type 2 disorder highlight the probable significance of modest but unstable mood disturbance in the development and maintenance of such problems.