Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor induces both HLA-DR expression and cytokine production by human monocytes.
Chantry D., Turner M., Brennan F., Kingsbury A., Feldmann M.
The effect of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on the expression of HLA-DR, and the production of the cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) by human peripheral blood monocyte-enriched populations was investigated. GM-CSF was shown to induce both the expression of HLA-DR and the cytokines IL-1 and TNF alpha in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), which induced major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression, did not induce IL-1 or TNF alpha production. However, IFN-gamma enhanced the cell surface expression of HLA-DR and the production of IL-1 and TNF alpha on monocyte-enriched cells stimulated by GM-CSF. By itself, GM-CSF did not induce surface class II expression on the human monocytic tumour cell line THP-1, whereas it synergized with IFN-gamma to induce surface expression. These cells responded to GM-CSF by producing IL-1 and TNF alpha; Northern blotting showed that mRNA levels of IL-1 and TNF alpha were transiently induced, similar to other cytokines. Our results indicate that GM-CSF is a major macrophage activating factor that is capable of inducing both the expression of HLA-DR and the cytokines involved in T-cell activation by macrophages; therefore, GM-CSF may be of importance in potentiating antigen presenting function.