Central Nervous System Neuronal Surface Antibodies
Coutinho E., Vincent A.
This chapter focuses on disorders mediated by autoantibodies that target neuronal surface antigens. This is a rapidly expanding field with a plethora of antigens already described. Despite the diversity of antigenic targets, these conditions have some common characteristics. They are associated with autoantibodies that disrupt synaptic transmission and the clinical phenotypes correlate broadly with the specific neurotransmitter/synaptic dysfunction. They can occur in patients of any age, gender, and sometimes in the context of a cancer. This group of conditions can be severe or even life threatening and a timely diagnosis is crucial. Prompt institution of appropriate therapy often leads to a good outcome. Autoantibodies that target the central nervous system but not neuronal epitopes (e.g., glial cells epitopes, such as Aquaporin-4) will be discussed elsewhere. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved..